Notes on Chapter 7

Notes and previous versions for Chapter 7

“I heard that

They watch as a small group of shrimp float in the water, intricate and pinky

Suddenly, one of the shrimp disappears, Hector gets a glimpse as something long, thin, and dark colored disappears with it. Hector gapes in astonishment as Alice cries what was that!. In a few moments, a tentacled arm appears, snakes out along the bottom, taps a shrimp and snaps it out of site. Hector swims over the tiny opening, calls “Hello?” and an explosion of shrimp parts jettison outward into Hector’s turtle face.
Two eyes pop up in the den opening. “Oh, sorry. Cleaning my den, you really shouldn’t come so close. You must be new to the reef.”
“Yes, um, just exploring new territories.”
“Well, welcome,” and the being pours out of the end, unrolling eight long tentacled legs and a large sac. “Hi, I’m Zetta. I don’t suppose you’d give me a lift across the lagoon?”
“Um, I’m um, Travels with Baggage, sure, why not. Where are you going?”
“I’m headed for a place to raise my children, and you could get me safely across. I promise not to try to strangle you!”
“Well, sure, then. Happy to help.”
“Great! There’s been a shark dogging my footsteps recently and I was worried about making it to safety.”

(apparently this story is a lie. , set up by a human photographer)

So: they don’t have to cross the lagoon, she is getting ready to settle in for her birthing routine, so eating like mad, standing on her legs like stilts,


So, Alice decides she has had it with humans and wants to visit a sentient nonhuman being. The BEE locates an octopus settlement in the virgin islands national park, and Hector is changed into a sea turtle.

There is a constant hum of chattering noises and Alice says “What’s that noise? Is that a language?”
“According to the Bee History,” says Hector, “that’s the lingua franca of the sea, pretty rudimentary, basically a locating and warning signal to friends about apparent

1. Sea turtles are reptiles, like snakes and lizards, and breathe air. T
8. Sea turtles can rest underwater without breathing for up to two hours. When seeking food or evading predators, they need to surface for air more frequently.
The average lifespan for a sea turtle is hard to nail down, given that they live for several decades and few research projects last that long. Current conventional wisdom suggests that they reach breeding age anywhere between age 3 and 50 and may live 80 to 100 years, though these figures are ballpark.

Hector visits the community, searches through the environment, admiring all the corals and seaweeds, and is stopped when a long arm of an octopus is extended past its nose to harvest a shrimp (or maybe when she ejects junk out of her den). Hector says hello, the octopus slowly comes out from her den, and is octopus is flirty and reckless, egomaniacal but sweet and generous. Hector asks about how she lives, what she thinks about living for 18 months or so

She plays games? Hide and seek, or rides on the back of the tutrle (maybe the turtle gets off on flying through the sea, and the octopus hitches a ride,she opens a clam or a crab or a shrimp, or maybe all o fthem, feeding herself to get ready for the spawning season, when she abruptly changes into a baby protection machine. She changes her exterior use special pigment cells in their skin to change colors and textures, and can blend in with even the most intricately patterned corals, plants, and rocks.

She cleans her den, eating her prey and ejecting the remains

Play with the avoidant behavior of teh tutrle compared to the agressive playfulness of the octopus

Where deep sea turtles and octopi co-occur, what relatioship they have (there’s an image of anoctopus riding on one, some evidence that they kill one another on occasion), what kind of living things the octopus does (like, I think it lives in communities?) and what does the cognition of the octopus mean, also some myth that could be used as an underpinning (Kraken?) 3-5 years


Complex cognitiion? Jennifer Mather, but Amodio

Amodio 2019
predation techniques, dexterity, communication, and tool use
Carrying of coconut shells by veined octopuses (maybe to arranged them in a den in case of predatory
Passing cloud display (a skin display characterized by a well-defined dark area taht seems to move directionally on the animals body, startles prey
Avoidance of stinging anemones (inhibit predation of hermit crabs with stinging anemone on their shells

Learn simple mazes, distinguish between shapes and patterns in classical condition
Use landmark navigation while foraging
Show play behavior
Have individual personalities
Learned how to open screw top lids (female giant Pacific and pill bottles

Caldwell Larger Pacific Striped Octopus )a harlequin octopus)
Beak-to-beak mating
Dens shared by mating pairs,
Inking during mating
Extended spawning
Forms colonies of 30-40 individuals, living at high density, including co-occupancy of dens by pairs

Generic octopi functions
Three functioning hearts, head and feet are merged, ring of eight equaly-long arms surround the head, which they use to walk on the sea floor, the undersides of the arms are covered with suction cups that are very senstive to touch and taste, sack=like body is perched atop the head, which has two comlex and sensitve eyes, its mouth on the undersdie. They have a hard beak which they use to pierce the shells of crustacean prey. Copper based blood, which makes it blue in color and is more efficient at transporting oxygen at low termperstaures. 90% muscle, lack bones and can fit through very small spaces, skin contains cells called chromatophores that allow the octopus to change color and pattern.

Octopuses have three functioning hearts. Two of the hearts work exclusively to move blood to the gills, while the third pumps blood through the rest of the body. Rather than iron-based blood, their blood is copper-based, which is more efficient at transporting oxygen at low temperatures and makes their blood blue in color.

The largest species is the giant Pacific octopus, found off the Pacific coast of the US form California to Alaksa, with an arm span reaching 14 feet (4 m), common is msuch mslaller, growing u to 3 feet (.9 m), red octopus growns only aobout 20 inces

Octopuses are found in every ocean of the world and along every coast of the United States. Octopuses live in coastal marine waters and spend much of their time in dens—small holes and crevices in rocks and coral. They are generally solitary and territorial. Moray eels, fish, seals, sperm whales, sea otters, and many birds prey on octopuses. Octopuses use several different strategies to evade predators—they camouflage themselves by quickly changing their skin color, they make colorful displays or eject ink to startle or confuse potential predators, they squeeze into small crevices to escape, and they quickly propel themselves through water.

The male initiates mating by approaching the female. He has a specialized tip at the end of one arm that transfers sperm to the female’s oviduct. The female looks for a suitable den site and lays the eggs, attached in chains, to the rock or coral or the den. The eggs can number in the hundreds of thousands for some species. The female guards and cares for the eggs, aerating and cleaning them until they hatch. As soon as they hatch, the young are able to swim, eat, and produce ink. The male parent dies soon after mating and the female survives only until her brood has hatched. An octopus will generally live for about one to three years, depending on the species.

Octopuses move using jet propulsion—they suck water into their mantle cavity, then quickly contract their muscles to force the water out through a narrow siphon, aiming the water to steer in a particular direction.


Octopuses have a relatively short life span, and some species live for as little as six months. Larger species, such as the North Pacific giant octopus, may live for up to five years under suitable circumstances. However, reproduction is a cause of death: males can only live for a few months after mating, and females die shortly after their eggs hatch, for they neglect to eat during the (roughly) one month period spent taking care of their unhatched eggs.

Three defensive mechanisms are typical of octopuses: ink sacs, camouflage and autotomising limbs. Most octopuses can eject a thick blackish ink in a large cloud to aid in escaping from predators. They also have specialized skin cells, called chromatophores, for both color changing and light reflection and refraction. They use this ability to blend into the environment to hide, communicate with or warn other octopuses. The very poisonous Blue-ringed octopus becomes bright yellow with blue rings when it is provoked. When under attack, some octopuses can autotomise their limbs, in a similar manner to skinks and other lizards. The crawling arm serves as a distraction to would-be predators; this ability is also used in mating. A few species, such as the Mimic octopus, have a fourth defense mechanism. They can combine their highly flexible bodies with their color changing ability to accurately mimic other, more dangerous animals such as lionfish and eels.

When octopuses reproduce, males use a specialized arm called a hectocotylus to insert spermatophores (packets of sperm) into the female's mantle cavity. The hectocotylus is usually the third right arm. In some species, the female octopus can keep the sperm alive inside her for weeks until her eggs are mature. After they have been fertilized, the female lays roughly 200,000 eggs (this figure dramatically varies between families, genera, species and also individuals). The female hangs these eggs in strings from the ceiling of her lair, or individually attached to the substratum depending on the species. After the eggs hatch, the young larval octopuses must spend a period of time drifting in clouds of plankton, where they feed on copepods, larval crabs and larval seastars until they are ready to sink down to the bottom of the ocean, where the cycle repeats itself. In some deeper dwelling species, the young do not go through this period. This is a dangerous time for the octopuses; as they become part of the plankton cloud they are vulnerable to many plankton eaters.

Octopuses are highly intelligent. Maze and problem-solving experiments show that they have both short and long term memory. An octopus has a highly complex nervous system, only part of which is localized in its brain. Two-thirds of an octopus's neurons are found in the nerve cords of its arms, which have a remarkable amount of autonomy. Octopus arms show a wide variety of complex reflex actions arising on at least three different levels of the nervous system. Some octopuses, such as the mimic octopus, will move their arms in ways that emulate the movements of other sea creatures. Octopuses can be readily trained to distinguish between different shapes and patterns. They are able to open jars after learning from observation. Octopuses have also been observed in what may be described as play; repeatedly releasing bottles or toys into a circular current in their aquariums and then catching them. Octopuses often break out of their aquariums and sometimes into others in search of food. They have even boarded fishing ships and opened holds to eat crabs.

Octopuses have keen eyesight. Although their slit-shaped pupils might be expected to afflict them with astigmatism, it appears that this is not a problem in the light levels in which an octopus typically hunts. Surprisingly, they do not appear to have color vision, although they can distinguish the polarization of light. Attached to the brain are two special organs, called statocysts, that allow the octopus to sense the orientation of its body relative to horizontal. An autonomic response keeps the octopus's eyes oriented so that the pupil slit is always horizontal. Octopuses also have an excellent sense of touch. The octopus's suckers are equipped with chemoreceptors so that the octopus can taste what it is touching. The arms contain tension sensors so that the octopus knows whether its arms are stretched out.

Octopuses move about by crawling or swimming. Their main means of slow travel is crawling, with some swimming. Their only means of fast travel is swimming. Their fastest movements only occur when provoked by hunger or if in danger. They crawl by walking on their arms, usually on many at once, on solid surfaces, while supported in water. They swim by expelling a jet of water from a contractile mantle, and aiming it via a muscular siphon.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KK9ZVVEGfGQ turtle trying to eat an occtopus, octopus is trying to strangle the turtle Mozambique reef
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4bJ7_QkIo4M octopus eating turtle (small turtle)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uMmZ3zIzpSo turtle eating octopus

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/AR_Qe2kdXbwaGcj-fftD96yue6eAS-QKpwdGYJ6ubBS9MNE0LS6I6ME/ octopus riding a sea turtle

Psych: attachment issues

In the laboratory, individuals occupied dens of a variety of natural (shells of Nautilus, Strombus, and the barnacle Conchylepes) and artificial (terra cotta flower pots, glass bottles, custom blown glass, PVC tubes 3, 3.8 and 5 cm diameter) materials. Although available, pebbles were generally not used for construction of a larger den. The only individual to use them for denning was a senescing female that hid behind pebbles in the corner of a tank for the four weeks prior to her death. This female was observed to build a small rounded mound of sand around the den entrance, sometimes burying the entrance to the den (15 to 31 cm in diameter, up to 5 cm deep in the center). In cases when air bubbles were trapped in barnacles and conch shells used for dens (as occurred sometimes during tank cleaning), octopuses turned the shells over, which removed the air bubbles, before entering. Sand that entered the den was removed from the den with forceful jetting of water through the funnel. After feeding, the remains of prey items were forcefully ejected from the immediate vicinity of the den entrance (S1 Movie). Octopuses frequently moved 1–2 body lengths before ejecting prey remains. This observation supports observations from the 1970’s that conspicuous prey remains were not found near dens in the wild.

northern Pacific coast of Columbia

Giant pacific octopus
Enteroctopus dofleini

3 to 5 years
9.75 to 16 feet
22 to 110 pounds

The giant Pacific octopus grows bigger and lives longer than any other octopus species. The size record is held by a specimen that was 30 feet across and weighed more than 600 pounds. Averages are more like 16 feet and 110 lbs.
Life Cycle
They live to be about four years old, with both males and females dying soon after breeding. Females live long enough to tend fastidiously to their eggs, but they do not eat during this months-long brooding period, and usually die soon afterwards.
Giant Pacific octopuses have huge, bulbous heads and are generally reddish-brown in color. Like the other members of the octopus family, though, they use special pigment cells in their skin to change colors and textures, and can blend in with even the most intricately patterned corals, plants, and rocks.
Diet and Range
They hunt at night, surviving primarily on shrimp, clams, lobsters, and fish, but have been known to attack and eat sharks as well as birds, using their sharp, beaklike mouths to puncture and tear flesh. They range throughout the temperate waters of the Pacific, from southern California to Alaska, west to the Aleutian Islands and Japan.
Intelligence and Population
Highly intelligent creatures, giant Pacific octopuses have learned to open jars, mimic other octopuses, and solve mazes in lab tests. Their population numbers are unknown, and they do not currently appear on any lists of endangered or vulnerable animals. However, they are sensitive to environmental conditions and may be suffering from high pollution levels in their range.
Female only spawns once, then spends the rest of her life tending to her enormous number of children--120,000 and 400,000 eggs which are coated in chorion, and attached to a hard surface by the female. While she fulfills her duty of parental care the female stays close to her spawn, never leaving to feed, leading to her death soon after the young have hatched.18 The female's death is the result of starvation, as she subsists on her own body fats19 during this period of approximately 6 months

Or Larger Pacific Striped Octopus too small . (Females grow to less than 7 centimeters across (3 inches), while males max out at less than 4.5 centimeters (2 inches) )


Octopus vulgaris
Common octopus
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), found along the east coast of the U.S., is much smaller, growing up to about three feet (0.9 meters)

Hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata
Green turtle Chelonia mydas

Communities grow where availability of food is high and predation is low. Pick a good spot; when an environment is mushy, then the octopuses build dens using shells, which can lead to an unusually concentrated circumstances (Scheel) “underwater city” not accurate; they do clean their dens by expelling algae, silt, and shells which are collected from deep in the den and t hen propelled some distance away (scheel), maybe do a joke; each octopuss does it by themselves; they rarely coccupy (somewhere in here)

Pacific coast of northern Columbia; reefs have an octopus community,
The third-longest barrier reef system on Earth runs along Providencia’s coast

turtles, octopuses and shoals of minute blue and yellow fish appeared, as well as forests of anemones, constellations of starfish and clusters of brain-like coral.


Old Providence McBean Lagoon National Natural Park

Hurricane Hole Hurricane Hole, St. John, US Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

Mangrove swamp within the Virgin Islands Coral Reef

A similar idea, from the US therapist Hedy Schleifer, is the turtle and octopus theory. The many-tentacled octopus, of course, is reaching out with all its limbs, grasping for affection and attention until it has smothered the recipient of its love. The turtle (actually a tortoise in UK parlance) retreats into its shell, missing out on all sorts of romantic possibilities.



https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/species/green-turtle#overview NOAA Fisheries: Green Turtle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZiULxLLP32s coral reef from Nat Geo

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uyb0wW0ln_g 3 minute long video of coral reef

15 minutes in florida

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTHmFuG855Y yakkity Trunk Bay VI but it was filmed after the reefs were destroyed by the hurricanes or bleaching, pretty awful

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUNHEy0U14k caribbean, 90 minute, includes sea turtle poking around

Need some prehistory of the Virgin Islands, establish who was living there ca 1800 BCE
Guanahatabey ? Ciboney? Taino? Does it have to be VI?



Gardens of the Queen reserve in Cuba,


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KbIv9Ezk-fA Gardens of the Queen

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0yo7TrQ3aM turtle taxi

A History of the Virgin Islands of the United States
Isaac Dookham 10994. Canoe Press, 9789768125057, 9768125055

Okay: The Indians used various devices to obtain their sea food. Fishing by Arawaks and Caribs was done by nets made of cotton or fiber, fitted with wooden floats and stone sinkers, and nets were robably used for dragging. The use of nets suggests shore fishing. So too does teh use o fthe hhok and line, the former being made of shell or bone. Fish spears were probably used also, the prongs being fish bones. Unlike the Ciboneys and Arawaks, teh Caribs also used bows and arros. Baskets were used for both fishing and for storing the catch.

Virgin Bank is a commnon fishing grond; fishes include tarpon, herring, sardine, shark, mackeral, snook, and snapper, lobsters, craps and shrimps, conch, oyster, and snail. Land and sea turtles were common

To the zemis were attributed teh powers of the sprits, some were believed to influnce the weather, some to regulare crops, some to improve hunting and fishing, some to produce wealth, others to help in childbirth
Canoes were used ion fishing trips

Predators are y sharks, stingrays and some other predatory fish

Grooming, skin removal

March, Eric.
Octopus intelligence: Here are 13 of teh most frighteningly smart things they can do. Upworthy,

Slip their entire body through a narrow hole the sitze of a medium length hardcover novel (what the fuck?)

Defend themselvs with rock formation (Jennifer Mather

Make tools out of coconuts and shells

Mimic other deadly sea creatures (poinsonous fish or snakes)

Have been known to strangle and kill sharks with a

Mather, Jennifer A. and Ludovic Dickel. "Cephalopod Complex Cognition." Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, vol. 16, 2017, pp. 131-37, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.008.
Build shelter, present a startle skin pattern with skin system and arm postures, if a predator attacks, they combine appearnace change, inking that is a smoke screen and a chemical repellent, and jet propulsion

Extend an arm or tentacle tip to attract potential prey, causal reasons in sending a passing cloud skin display

Changing color https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydrc489USbM

Created by KKris. Last Modification: Saturday 30 of October, 2021 07:24:06 EDT by KKris.